- Aerobic Growth - Bacteria that require oxygen/air to grow.
- Amylase - Enzyme that starts the breakdown of carbohydrates.
- Anti Corrosion Agents - additive that protects lubricated metal surfaces from chemical attack by water or other contaminants.
- Bacillus - Gram Negative facultative anaerobe bacteria. It is specifically chosen in waste water applications for its ability to degrade fats, oils and grease.
- Baffle/Weir - Physical barrier in a grease trap that allows the separation of solids grease from water.
- Blow-by - Passage of unburned fuel and combustion gases past the piston rings of internal combustion engines. This results in fuel dilution, engine oil contamination and loss of power.
- BOD - Biological Oxygen Demand. Measurement that determines the amount of oxygen needed by aerobic organisms to break down organic content within a waste water system.
- Carbon Residues - Coked material remaining after an oil has been exposed to high temperatures under controlled conditions.
- Catalytic Converter - An integral part of vehicle emission control systems since 1975. Their job is to convert harmful pollutants into less harmful emissions. Oxidising converters help remove hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide (CO) from exhaust gases, while reducing converters control nitrogen oxide (Nox) emissions.
- Cetane - Colourless, liquid hydrocarbon. Ignites easily when exposed to a small amount of heat.
- Cetane Improvers - An additive (usually an organic nitrate) that boosts the cetane number of a fuel which gives improved combustion.
- Cetane Number - The cetane number is a measure of the ignition quality of the diesel fuel. The higher the cetane number, the more easily the fuel will combust in a compression setting (such as a diesel engine).
- Chlorinated/Fluorinated Solvents - Petroleum materials where Chlorine and Fluorine have been added to make the item less flammable or completely non-flammable.
- Cleaning Solvents - Loosens and removes deposits to improve exhaust emission and performance.
- Combustible - Any liquid or solid that will burn when ignited by a flame.
- Combustion Atomisers - Additives that reduce the surface tension of the fuel leading to greater atomisation (smaller drops). Helps improve combustion and reduce emissions.
- Common Rail Technology - A high-pressure pump transfers fuel to a common rail system (hollow shaft). This stores then delivers precise amounts of fuel at up to 25,000 psi, to the combustion chamber via computer-controlled electronic injectors. The latter are independent upon engine speed and load.
- COD - Chemical Oxygen Demand. Measurement that determines the amount of organic material in waste water.
- Dewatering Agents - Additives to separate and push water to the bottom of the tank. Helps reduce filter blockages in winter due to ice formation.
- Dielectric/Dielectric Strength - A test for oils and solvents used on electrical items. Full name is dielectric breakdown voltage. Two metal plates are immersed in liquid and an increasing electrical current is passed between them, when the current is high enough to ‘break’ the fluid, the voltage of the current is recorded.
- Diesel Additives - Diesel additives are used to enhance the performance of diesel fuel (improve combustion, decrease contamination, reduce exhaust emissions and increase lubricity).
- Diesel Engine - Designed by Rudolf Diesel and patented in 1892, a diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition and burn the fuel that has been injected into the combustion chamber. The explosion process is:
1.Intake stroke – Intake valve opens, air in, piston goes down
2.Compression stroke –Piston goes up, air compressed (heated in excess of 540°C)
3.Combustion stroke – Fuel is injected (right time), ignition, piston goes down
4.Exhaust – Piston goes up, pushes exhaust through the exhaust valve
- Diesel Fuel Quality - The quality of fuel is affected by the production process. Rougher grades of crude are extracted. The best parts are used to produce gasoline, jet fuel & kerosene. Diesel Fuel part is refined to meet minimum standards for regional markets, however the quality can vary between regions as well as with in regions.
- Dispersant & Detergent Agents - Additives that help disperse unwanted contaminants and clean the fuel line.
- Dissolved Oxygen (DO) - Measurement of the amount of oxygen dissolved in water and available to promote bacteria growth.
- Emissions (Mobile Sources - Vehicles) - The combustion of fuel leads to the emission of exhaust gases that may be regarded as pollutants. Water and CO2 are not included in this category but CO, Nox and hydrocarbons are subject to legislative control. All three are emitted by gasoline engines. Diesel engines also emit particulates (e.g. PM10)
- Emissions (Stationary Sources) - Fuel composition can influence emissions of sulphur oxides and particulates from power stations. Local authorities control the sulphur content of heavy fuel oils used in such applications
- Emulsification - The mixing of oil and water or any two substances that will not naturally mix together, requiring an emulsifier.
- Emulsifier - A substance that promotes the mixing of oil and water or any two substances that will not naturally mix.
- EN590 - EN590 describes the physical properties that all automotive diesel fuel must meet if it is to be sold in the European Union, Croatia, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. At present, it allows the blending of up to 7% Bio-diesel (i.e fatty acid methyl esters) with 'conventional' diesel.
- Engine Deposits - Hard or persistent accumulation of sludge, varnish and carbonaceous residues due to blow-by of unburned and partially burned fuel, or the partial breakdown of the crankcase lubricant. Water from the condensation of combustion products, carbon, residues from fuel or lubricating oil additives, dust and metal particles also contribute.
- Enzyme - A substance, usually used in small amounts relative to the reactants that modifies and increases the rate of a reaction without being consumed in the process.
- Evaporation - Speed at which liquid changes from liquid state to gas. Low flash or very flammable solvents typically evaporate quickly.
- Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) - System to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides (Nox). Via a valve, it mixes some of the exhaust gases with the air intake. This reduces the amount of oxygen needed, leading to lower combustion temperatures, thereby reducing the tendency for Nox to form. In most EGR systems, the exhaust is also cooled before it's mixed with the gas.
- Facultative Anaerobic Growth - Bacteria that grow with or without oxygen/air.
- FAME - Fatty-acid methyl ester (FAME), perhaps more widely known as biodiesel, is obtained from vegetable oil or animal fats. It can be produced from many types of oils, the most common being rapeseed oil (rapeseed methyl ester, RME) in Europe and soybean oil (soy methyl ester, SME) in the USA. The European Union uses up to 7% FAME in diesel for environmental benefits.
- Fatty Acids - Acids produced when fats are broken down. These acids are not highly soluble in water and can be used for energy by most types of cells.
- Flammable - Any substance that supports combustion. In some countries “inflammable” means the same. For product labelling anything with a flash point of 38°C or below is considered flammable. Flammable liquids will burn with just a spark or electrical discharge.
- Flash Point - Minimum temperature at which a fluid will support instantaneous combustion (a flash) but before it will burn continuously (fire point). Flash point is an important indicator of the fire and explosion hazards associated with a petroleum product.
- FOG - Fats, Oils and Grease. A measurement that determines concentration of these elements in waste water. FOG is usually the biggest customer issue with commercial waste water applications (grease traps). FOG is not a tested parameter of waste water.
- Free Rinsing - Does not leave oily residue which attracts dust. No need for scrubbing after application.
- Gasoline Engine - A gasoline engine is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol (gasoline). The explosion process is:
1.Intake stroke – Fuel is mixed with air
2.Compression stroke – Piston goes up, fuel/air mix is compressed
3.Ignition stroke – Fuel/air mix is ignited through the use of a spark plug
4.Exhaust stroke – Piston goes up, pushes exhaust through the exhaust valve
- Grease Interceptor - Outdoor (usually buried in ground) physical separator of grease and solids from waste water. This is usually the final point before the waste water is sent to the city.
- Grease Trap - Indoor above or below ground grease interceptor. A grease trap is a device designed to separate and capture waste grease and food solids from the water effluent of commercial kitchens.
- Hydrochloric Acid - The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas. It is a strong acid, the major component of gastric acid and of wide industrial use. A highly corrosive liquid.
- Jetting - Use of a special sonde/drill with high pressure water to clean up drain lines and remove any blockages. This is normally carried out by an external company.
- Lipase - Enzyme that starts the breakdown of FOG.
- Lubricity Agents - Control of friction and wear by the introduction of a friction-reducing film between moving surfaces.
- N - Nitrogen. Is the chemical element of atomic number seven. At room temperature, it is a gas of diatomic molecules and is colourless and odourless.
- Nitrogen Oxide - Nitrogen oxides (NOx, NxO) can refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds
- Non-flammable - Any substance that will not support combustion. Many of the banned fluorinated and chlorinated solvents were non-flammable. Today more and more cleaning solvents are flammable or combustible.
- Octane Number - Octane number is a standard measure of the performance of a petrol/gasoline fuel. The higher the octane number, the more compression the fuel can withstand before igniting (without a spark). In broad terms, fuels with a higher octane rating are used in high performance petrol engines that require larger compression ratios.
- Organic Matter - Material that has come from a once-living organism and is capable of decay or the product of decay or is composed of organic compounds.
- Oxidation Inhibitors - Additives to reduce the onset of fuel oxidation in storage that could lead to gum formation and line blockages.
- P - Phosphorus. A non-metallic chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
- Particulate Filter - A diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a device designed to remove diesel particulate matter or soot from the exhaust gas. The DPF is normally regenerated by Passive action (exhaust temperature is high enough to burn off the soot particles).
- Penetrating Agents - Additives that penetrate through grease/soil to enable better cleaning or lubrication.
- Petroleum Solvent - A hydrocarbon liquid derived from refined or partly refined crude oil or natural gas.
- Phosphoric Acid - Pure 75-85% aqueous solutions (the most common) are clear, colourless, odourless, non-volatile, rather viscous, syrupy liquids, but still pourable. Phosphoric acid is very commonly used as an aqueous solution of 85% phosphoric acid or H3PO4. Because it is a concentrated acid, an 85% solution can be corrosive, although not toxic when diluted.
- Pseudomonas - Bacteria that does not form a spore and stays a vegetative cell.
- Protease - Enzyme that starts the breakdown of proteins.
- Pump-Outs - Contents of a grease interceptor (water, solidified FOG, solids) are pumped out by suction into the tank of a pumper truck.
- Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) - Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) converts nitrogen oxides (NOx), with the aid of a catalyst and a chemical, to Nitrogen (N2) and water. The Chemical is typically a solution of urea ( eg Adblue) which is injected into the exhaust stream and on contact with the SCR catalyst it produces ammonia which then converts the NOx to Nitrogen and water.
- Solvent - Hydrocarbon or chlorinated compound with complete evaporation capability. Any substance capable of dissolving another substance to form a dispersed mixture.
- Solvent Based Degreasers - Degreasers that contain over 50% petroleum or terpene solvents.
- Spore - A Bacillus spore is a dormant, resting state cell covered in a type of a shell.
- SS - Suspended Solids. Small solid particles that remain in suspension in water. It is used as an indicator of water quality. The removal of SS is generally achieved through the use of sedimentation and/or water filters. This is followed by disinfection to ensure any remaining amount of SS is rendered ineffective.
- Sulphamidic Acid - Sulfamic acid, also known as amidosulfonic acid, amidosulfuric acid, aminosulfonic acid, and sulfamidic acid, is a molecular compound with the formula H3NSO3. This colourless, water-soluble compound finds many applications. Sulfamic acid is a member of the following series of compounds: H2SO4 (sulfuric acid), H3NSO3 (sulfamic acid), H4N2SO2 (sulfamide)
- Sulphur - A natural lubricant in diesel fuel which provides extra lubricity. However to avoid the release of Sulphur Dioxide gases (SOx) etc, the European Community mandates the use of a maximum of 10 ppm of sulphur in diesel fuel.
- Terpenes - Natural solvents that occur in most essential oils and resins of plants – most commercial terpenes is derived from citrus peels or pine trees.
- TSS - Total Suspended Solids. Measurement that determines the percentage of solids that are suspended in the water. Usually these particles are unseen by the human eye.
- Turbo Engine - Turbo-diesel refers to any diesel engine equipped with a turbocharger. Turbo-charging compresses the air so more air can squeeze into a cylinder with more fuel to get more power. Common in modern car and truck diesel engines to produce higher power outputs, lower emissions levels, and improved efficiency from a similar capacity of engine
- Varnish - A thin, insoluble, non wipeable film occurring on interior engine parts. Can cause sticking and malfunction of close-clearance moving parts. Called lacquer in diesel engines.
- Vegetative Cell - A bacteria cell, which is capable of actively growing.
- VOC - Volatile Organic Compounds are organic chemicals that easily form vapours at normal temperature and pressure; they are also colourless and odourless. They are called organic because they contain the element carbon in their molecular structures.