Cycles of concentration (cycles) measure the degree to which dissolved impurities of makeup water are concentrated in a cooling tower or steam boiler system.

Optimising the cycles is essential for sustainability because it minimises water, energy, and chemical consumption.

The chart below shows the calculated water usage in a cooling tower system operating at 500 tons of refrigeration load at varying cycles of concentration. As cycles increase, the water blown down from the system decreases.

cycles of concentration 1

Water usage is reduced when the cycles get higher, but there is also an increased risk of deposition which can cause system damage and inefficiencies. Often increasing cycles above 6 may provide minimal return versus the risk taken.

In the table below, you can check other options to reduce freshwater usage and increase cycles of concentration.


*Air handler condensate, ground water, rainwater, municipal, site-specific recycled water

If you want to know the optimal cycle of concentration for your water system and its water quality, ask one of Chem-Aqua´s experts to assist you. We will be pleased to help!