All diesel fuel that is sold in the European Union must meet the EN590 European standards.
This lists and describes all of the standards and physical properties of which the fuel must meet in order to legally be sold in the EU, Croatia, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. At present, it allows the blending of up to 7% bio-diesel (i.e. fatty acid methyl esters, also known as FAME) with 'conventional' (normal) diesel.
The properties specified in the EN590 include:
• Centane number: a minimum of 51
• Centane index: a minimum of 46
• Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a maximum of 11%
• Water content: a maximum of 200 ppm
• Flash point: a minimum of 55 C
• Ash content: a maximum of 0.01%
• Viscosity at 40 degrees celsius: a minimum of 2 cst, and a maximum of 4.5 cst
• Density at 15 degrees celsius: a minimum of 820 Kg/m3, and a maximum of 845 Kg/m3
• Total contamination: a maximum of 24 ppm
• Sulphur content: a maximum of 10 ppm
• Lubricity at 60 degrees celsius: a maximum of 460 microns
• Carbon residue: a maximum of 0.3%
• Copper strip corrosion for 3 hours at 50 degrees celsius: must have a Class 1 rating
• Oxidation stability: a maximum of 25 g/m3
• Cloud point: the low temperature at which the wax in diesel begins to turn cloudy as it solidifies. This solidification of the wax thickens the oil, resulting in the fuel clogging the fuel filters and fuel injectors and fuel additive injectors in vehicle engines.
• CFFP - Cold filter plugging point: the minimum temperature at which the fuel can still flow through a filter
• FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Esters) content of the bio-part